NewsNotes
March 2005


NewsNotes is a monthly email update of goings-on at EPS. In it you will find information on current projects, announcements of upcoming events and publications, and an action corner. We would like to include information on what our members are doing. If you would like to submit information about an event or publication that you are involved with, please send an email to theaharvey@epsusa.org. (The fine print - we reserve the right to edit submissions for space or content.)

In This Issue (click on a button or heading to jump to that section)
EPS News
Links
In Other News
Food for Thought
Funding Opportunities
EPS Publications
Action Corner
Upcoming Events
How Can I Help?
EPS News

The February 22nd Security Policy Working Group event, "Home by Christmas? Near-term US Strategies for Exiting Iraq" took a look at the US position, and offered several possible solutions. James Galbraith, chair of EPS, cautioned against hasty withdrawal, which could lead to a calamatous collapse of order in Iraq. His remarks are available at http://www.epsusa.org/publications/newsnotes/2005/GalbraithIraq.pdf . Charles V. Peña, Director of Defense Studies at the Cato Institute, would like to see an almost immediate withdrawal of US troops. David Cortright, president of the Fourth Freedom Forum, outlined a hand-over of security responsibilities to the UN. Carl Conetta, co-director of the Project on Defense Alternatives, suggested that withdrawal would remove most of the impetus behind the insurgency.

The event was broadcast live on C-Span, and can be viewed in their archives at http://www.c-span.org/VideoArchives.asp?CatCodePairs=Issue,DESE;&ArchiveDays=100&Page=6.

 

The EPS session on "The Costs of War" at the recent Eastern Economics Association meeting was a great success. Speaking to a standing-room-only crowd, Jurgen Brauer spoke about US Military Expenditure: Data, Models, Coefficients; David Gold addressed The Economics of Terrorism and Counterterrorism; and Lawrence Klein followed with The Macroeconomics of Preventive War: What Has Iraq Done to the US Economy?

 

Our Spring Newsletter should be in mailboxes soon. On the second anniversary of the beginning of active combat, this issue focuses on the war in Iraq. An article by James Galbraith discusses possible exit strategies. David Gold writes on the economics of terrorism. Basam Yousef presents a study on the economic policies of the Coalition Provisional Authority (CPA). And we juxtapose graphs from Charles Pena of the Cato Institute's data on what the Iraqi people want from the US now, and a new study done by Steve Kull of the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA), on changes that Americans would make in the budget allocations if given a chance.

 

We invite you to visit our website often. Updated regularly, it offers articles by our members that don't appear in our regular newsletter. This month features articles by:

Call for Papers: European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy (EAEPE http://www.eaepe.org) is seeking papers for its 17th Annual Conference to be held in Bremen, Germany, November, 10-12, 2005.
Papers are being solicited in the following topic areas:

Further information: http://eaepe.org/eaepe.php?q=node/view/92&PHPSESSID=97810371f77b16fae56dce0b0aa5a679

 

Joseph Stiglitz, writing in the Australian Financial Review, discusses the nomination process for the new head of the World Bank in Crucial Choice, Flawed Process. "The lives and well being of billions in the Third World depend on a global war on poverty. Choosing the right general in that war will not assure victory, but choosing the wrong one surely enhances the chances of failure." http://afr.com/articles/2005/03/09/1110316097453.html

Joseph Stiglitz is a Nobel laureate in economics, professor of economics at Columbia University, a Trustee of EPS, and former chief economist and senior vice-president at the World Bank.

 

EPS member, Ahmad Faruqui, contributed the following article to the February RUSI Journal (Royal United Service Institute for Defense and Security Studies).

Broadening American-Pakistani Ties "As the Bush administration begins its second term, it should seek to broaden American-Pakistani ties. In the first term, the relationship focused on a single dimension, which was fighting the war against the Taliban and Al Qa'ida. Given the pivotal nature of the Pakistani army in waging this war, the relationship centered heavily on the army chief who also serves as the president, General Pervez Musharraf. There are two problems with this approach. Firstly, such a policy reflects a unilateral focus on US priorities and clearly does not serve the long-term interests of Pakistan, which involve the development of democratic civilian institutions. Secondly, it is unclear whether it serves the long-term interests of the United States. The US cannot win the war on terror simply by disabling, arresting or killing terrorists. The US, working in concert with the government and people of Pakistan, has to address the process through which otherwise normal people become terrorists. It cannot hope to win the global war on terror simply by supporting the Pakistani military government. During its second term, the Bush administration should ensure that genuine democracy is restored in Pakistan in the year 2005. It should put pressure on Musharraf to hold elections to the national and provincial assemblies and begin the task of strengthening the country's civilian institutions."

http://www.rusi.org/publications/journal/ref:P4214BB123CF0B/

 
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Links

True Majority has a great cartoon video that contrasts the military budget with education, healthcare and foreign aid spending, and addresses the problem, "But if we reduce the military budget, we would be vulnerable." The cartoon features Ben Cohen (founder of Ben and Jerry's Ice Cream) using Oreo cookies (because he's a dessert guy) to represent each $10 billion of expenditure. http://go.truemajority.org/fun/

 

Surrounding the review of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) at the UN May 2-27, many NGOs will be hosting events. For a list of events and more information please visit http://www.reachingcriticalwill.org/legal/npt/RevConEvents.html

 
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In Other News
EPS Security Policy Working Group (SPWG) partners William D. Hartung and Frida Berrigan, of the Arms Trade Resource Center, have released a new Fact Sheet: Militarization of US Africa Policy, 2000 to 2005. The introduction, subtitled, Guns, Oil and Terror, states, "In the wake of September 11th, and in keeping with its interest in securing access to oil and other key natural resources, the Bush administration has been rapidly expanding U.S. military involvement in Africa.

"While most recent increases in US arms sales, aid, and military training in Africa have been justified as part of what the administration refers to as the 'Global War on Terrorism' (GWOT), oil has been a major factor in the administration’s strategic calculations from the outset. In his first few months in office, President Bush’s first Secretary of State, Colin Powell, stressed the need to improve relations with oil-producing nations like Nigeria and Angola. Similarly, the report of Vice-President Cheney’s Energy Task Force stressed the importance of gaining and maintaining access to African oil resources, which US intelligence assessments expect to increase to as much as 25% of US oil imports by the year 2020.

"Beyond oil, US military officials have cited 'a growing terrorist threat' in northern and sub-Saharan Africa to justify a program of stepped up military engagement in the region. General James Jones, head of the US European command, has suggested the need to create a 'family of bases' across Africa that would range from forward-operating locations, which would include an airfield and facilities to house 3,000 to 5,000 US military personnel, to 'bare-bones' bases that US Special Forces or Marines could 'land at and build up as the mission required.'"

View the entire Fact Sheet at http://www.worldpolicy.org/projects/arms/reports/AfricaMarch2005.html

 

The results of a new poll of public attitudes about federal spending policies, by Steve Kull of the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA), were released on March 7. The poll analysis shows that the public would cut defense spending by about one third, would also cut back in the supplemental authorization for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, would reduce the deficit, and would significantly increase social spending in several areas. The study further shows that the public would also roll back recent tax cuts for the very wealthy. The poll and analysis can be found at http://www.pipa.org/OnlineReports/budget/030705/Report03_07_05.pdf. A summary is at http://www.pipa.org/

At a briefing to release the poll results, held at the National Press Club, Lawrence Korb spoke about how the Pentagon could cut back by about $30 billion in cold war weapons. Robert Bixby, Executive Director of the Concord Coalition, discussed the fiscal crisis created by recent tax cuts.

 

The Asian American Hotel Owner Association (AAHOA), despite strong protests from several civil rights organizations and the Coalition Against Genocide, is determined to honor Narendra Modi at their annual convention in Fort Lauderdale, FL (March 22-24, 2005). Narendra Modi was indicted by many international humanitarian organizations for perpetrating a pogrom of mass murder, rape and arson against religious minorities in Gujarat in 2002 while he was the Chief Minister of that state in India. Even India's Supreme Court acknowledged his complicity in the pogrom against minorities.

"It is a shame that an American business organization, motivated by ethnic loyalty and greed, has decided to overlook heinous crimes against humanity to honor him in exchange for investment opportunities in India. It is particularly hard to imagine such callous institutions in our midst even as we lecture the world on freedom, democracy and the rule of law. The AAHOA is sending a signal that while the Bush administration is determined to spread democracy, they are determined to do business with mass murderers who have absolutely no regard for human life or rule of law."

http://www.coalitionagainstgenocide.org/news/2005/mar/11.cp.genocide.php

 

EU's China Arms Policy Prompts Congressional Fears. The European Union is considering lifting an arms embargo against China. Individual member nations feel that opening their countries to further trade relations with China could benefit their economies. But some in the US feel that the move might threaten US security. Listen to the story on NPR http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4533516

 

Gareth Porter is a historian and an analyst for Foreign Policy In Focus (online at http://www.fpif.org). University of California Press will publish his latest book, Perils of Dominance: Imbalance of Power and the Road to War in Vietnam, in May. His recent article Finding the Way Forward: A Negotiated Settlement in Iraq proposes negotiating with the insurgents.

"It is now time for the United States to pursue the one policy option that has been missing from the national discussion of Iraq: the negotiation of a peace settlement with the insurgents that would involve the complete withdrawal of US troops in return for the surrender of the insurgents and the reintegration of the Sunni region into the post-Saddam political system." http://www.fpif.org/commentary/2005/0503forward.html

The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace announces the release of its report, Universal Compliance, A Strategy for Nuclear Security. The foundation of the strategy they recommend is that global security requires universal compliance with the norms and rules of a toughened nuclear non-proliferation policy. Compliance reflects a much-enhanced emphasis on enforcement over declarations of good intent. Universal means that non-proliferation norms and rules must be extended not just to treaty members but to all states (including the nuclear powers), and to individuals and corporations as well. More than one hundred detailed policy recommendations flow from this central theme. Twenty of them comprise a priority action agenda.

Publication of the volume will launch a period of intensive work by senior Carnegie experts with officials around the world through and beyond the NPT Review Conference in spring 2005. They will be urging adoption of these important concepts as the Iranian and North Korean crises pose momentous challenges to global non-proliferation, and as the international community meets to review the implementation of the NPT in New York this May.

To download the report, or request a hard copy, please visit http://www.CarnegieEndowment.org/strategy

The Control Arms campaign is joining the Amnesty International campaign, Stop Violence Against Women, to promote policies to stop gun violence against women, both in conflict zones and in their own homes where women have the right to be safe. A new Control Arms campaign report, "The Impact of Guns on Women’s Lives," was launched in Johannesburg, South Africa on March 7, 2005, just in time for International Women’s Day (March 8).

Women are paying a heavy price for the unregulated trade in small arms. Of the estimated 650 million small arms in the world today, nearly 60 percent are in the hands of private individuals – most of them men. The vast majority of those who make, sell, buy, own, use or misuse small arms are also men. Although most direct casualties are men, women suffer disproportionately from firearms violence, given that they are almost never the buyers, owners or users of such weapons.

The involvement of guns makes it far more likely that an attack will prove lethal. Research in the US shows that when guns are used in intimate partner violence, death is 12 times more likely to be the outcome than when other weapons are used. Women assaulted by their partners have a much better chance of survival if the attack is with a knife or other means, rather than a gun.

The report looks at the impact on women of guns in the home; in communities; and during and after conflict. In each of these contexts it looks at violence committed with guns against women, the role women play in gun use, the necessity of involving women in peace processes and the wide range of gun control measures adopted by governments around the world, usually as a result of women spearheading campaigns against gun violence. In Canada and Australia, where women’s organizations were at the forefront of successful campaigns to change national gun laws, the results have included major reductions in the gun murder rate for women.

You can read more about the campaign and download the report at http://www.amnesty.org/resources/flash/svaw/womenunderfire/eng/

 

Good news concerning Nepal: both India and the UK have suspended military aid to the Nepalese government. This was one of the demands made by Amnesty International after its Secretary General visited the country earlier this month. The US is also considering cutting the USD $1.5 million of military aid it provides Nepal, where 11,000 people have been killed in 9 years of conflict between the government and Maoist armed groups. More information at http://www.iansa.org

 
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Food for Thought

Political freedom is not a prerequisite for economic growth. Nor is it an impediment to development. But to delink democracy from economic growth indicates a limited understanding of human development. A society can't be summed up by its GDP figures. As Amartya Sen has argued, development has to be seen as a process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy. The most important of these is that of free speech. Democracy is the only political system that has free speech as its cornerstone. States that work within the framework of democracy are forced to opt for policies that address issues of equality and equity without ripping apart their social fabric. China, a socialist dictatorship, has sustained high growth for many years. But at what cost? Many million lives were lost when it embarked on the Great Leap Forward. India can't match China's spectacular achievements in human development. But it has endured the decades after Independence without widespread famines. From a food deficit country, it has managed to be self-sufficient without effecting large-scale damage on its people or ecology in comparison with China.

The Indian experiment of addressing social and economic divides through democracy offers a better option to Third World nations that are not social or ethnic monoliths. A political system that provides space for dissent has a better chance of not just improving lives but also to do it in a sustainable manner.

Read the entire article at http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1051379.cms

 
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Funding and Employment Opportunities

United for Peace and Justice (UFPJ) is looking for a coordinator for a massive demonstration demanding Nuclear Abolition Now! planned for May 1st in New York City. It will involve mostly outreach and keeping in touch with the various elements of the event: volunteer coordination for outreach to various communities (students, religious, labor, ethnic, etc.), coordination of other committees such as program, media, fundraising, website, and keeping communications going with all the committee contacts at meetings and conference calls. Short term, but intense assignment. Please submit a resume to lesliecagan@igc.org
 
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EPS Publications

EPS is pleased to announce the release of the first in a series of Fact Sheets. This first issue presents an overview of Military vs. Social Spending: Warfare or Human Welfare. The fact sheet compares US and global military spending with the costs of achieving the UN Millennium Development Goals in an accessible, graphic format. The fact sheet, which was compiled and designed by former Project Manager, Paul Burkholder, is available in PDF format at http://www.epsusa.org/publications/factsheets/milexMDG.pdf.

 

The ECAAR Review 2003. Titled Conflict or Development?, this edition has a regional focus on Africa, the site of most of the world's current armed conflicts. In its pages some of the leading economists of the day analyze and reflect on the relationships among military spending, domestic and foreign policy, security, and human welfare. Features include country studies and sections on business and conflict and "Trends in World Military Expenditure." Written in clear English, with informative maps, tables, and graphs, the series is designed to inform the debate among policymakers, activists, journalists, academics, students, and citizens worldwide.

You can order the Review at http://www.ecaar.org/Review_files/order.htm.

We believe the Review can be a valuable teaching tool in economics, political science, and international relations courses. If you are interested in teaching this book, please contact Thea Harvey (theaharvey@epsusa.org) for a copy to review.

 

The Full Cost of Ballistic Missile Defense. The study estimates that the total lifecycle cost for a layered missile defense system could reach $1.2 trillion through 2035. You can order a copy of the report from the cosponsor of the study, http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/nmd/fullcost.html, or download the PDF file from http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/nmd/fullcost.pdf.
 
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Action Corner

Congress voted on March 16 to give the Bush administration the 82 billion dollars it wants to continue the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, 388 to 43. This brings to total cost of the Iraq war to 200 billion dollars. Is this where you wanted your money to go (about $645 per person in the U.S)?

Please go to this link to see how your rep voted. http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2005/roll077.xml Then call them via the House Switchboard: (202) 224-3121, to either thank them for their courage to vote for sanity, or criticize them for voting to continue this huge waste of resources and life.

A further note on contacting your Representatives: There are five ways to contact Congress: personal visit, postal letter, phone, email, fax, and e-fax. Aside from personal visits, hand-written letters used to be the most effective. This is no longer true. Anthrax inspection now routinely delays such letters by at least a month. Getting a letter on actual paper, however, is still more effective than phone or email. Fax - especially e-fax - is currently the most effective way to contact Congress.

Here's how to e-fax: Write or paste your customized message into the body of a new email message. Don't forget your name, address, etc! Then cut and paste the e-fax address into the TO: field. Send the email, and it will print out as a fax remotely. Example addresses: remote-printer.Senator_Schumer@12022281218.iddd.tpc.int; remote-printer.Representative_Bishop@12022253143.iddd.tpc.int.

 

Anyone who would be willing to put an EPS flyer up on a departmental bulletin board or similar venue, please contact Thea Harvey at theaharvey@epsusa.org.
 
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Upcoming Events

March 18, 2005. The Study Group on the Economics of Security in the Post-9/11 World at 80 Fifth Avenue, 8th floor, LEADERSHIP ROOM. (This is a change of venue.) Between 13th and 14th streets, on the west side of the street, closer to 14th, at 2:00pm. Dr. Kimberly Marten, Associate Professor, Department of Political Science, Barnard College will be presenting. Dr. Marten is the author of "Enforcing the Peace: Learning from the Imperial Past," published by Columbia University Press, Fall 2004. Please RSVP to Frida Berrigan at BerrigaF@newschool.edu

 

March 28 – April 1, 2005. Peacebuilding, Conflict Transformation and Post-War Rebuilding, Reconciliation and Resolution (PCTR) A five-day advanced international training programme, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. More information at http://www.transcend.org.

 

April 2, 2005. “No one too small…” - An event in peacetraining for kids ages 8-13, at the War Resisters League National office, New York, New York. http://www.warresisters.org/kids-peace-training.htm

 

April 8 and 9, 2005. Women in War: Law and Gender in Situations of Conflict. The Harvard Journal of Law & Gender will be holding its annual conference at Harvard Law School in Cambridge, MA. The 2005 Conference will interrogate the myriad ways that women participate in and experience violent conflict. The Conference brings together leading legal and policy scholars, practitioners, and students who are interested in analyzing war and its many facets and effects through a gender-conscious lens. Ms. Rachel N. Mayanja, the United Nations Special Advisor on Gender Issues and the Advancement of Women, will be the Keynote Speaker. Conference panels focus on women combatants, war crimes and women, women's role in peace processes, issues of gender for refugees and internally-displaced persons, and women's rights and status in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Registration: Advance registration is $5 for Harvard students, $15 for other students, and $35 for non-students, and includes a Friday evening cocktail reception, Saturday breakfast, and Saturday lunch. For more information and to register, please visit: http://www.law.harvard.edu/students/orgs/jlg/general/conference.php. Online registration ends Tuesday, April 5th at 5:00pm. Registration at the door is $10 for Harvard students, $20 for other students, and $45 for non-students. If you have questions regarding registration, please contact Mary Mason at mmason@law.harvard.edu .

 

April 15-17, 2005: The Control Arms Campaign (Amnesty International, IANSA and Oxfam), the Africa Peace Forum (APFO), the Arias Foundation and Saferworld host the Global Campaign conference in Nairobi, Kenya.
The agenda includes:
  • latest developments on the Arms Trade Treaty, the Control Arms campaign, and on regional, national and local arms control campaigns
  • exchanging campaigning experience from different perspectives - across different regions, across target groups and across disciplines,
  • planning strategy for the next year and developing action plans at every level
  • sharing tips tools and techniques to inspire action on the arms crisis at global, regional, national and local levels discussing how we can support each other and mobilize others to join the campaign

COST: Accommodation and meals: Approx $57USD = £30 GBP per night. Registration form at http://www.iansa.org/regions/cafrica/documents/nairobi-invite-en.doc

 

April 18 – 22, 2005. Globalization from below: strategies and actions for social transformation and nonviolent struggle – learning from and building local and global movements, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. More information at http://www.transcend.org.

 

April 22, 2005. The Study Group on the Economics of Security in the Post-9/11 World at 66 W 12th Street, Room 510, New York, NY at 2:00pm. Diedre Clancy, Co-director of the International Refugee Rights Initiative and author of "A Human Rights-Based Approach to Refugee Assistance," will be the presenter. Please RSVP to Frida Berrigan at BerrigaF@newschool.edu

 

May 12, 2005. The First Annual Thomas Malthus Lecture presents Professor DOUGLASS NORTH (Nobel Laureate and EPS Trustee) to speak on "A NEW THEORY OF POLITICAL ECONOMY." The lecture will commence at 6:00pm and will be held in the Weston Auditorium, De Havilland Campus, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, UK. The location is about 1 mile from Hatfield Railway Station, which has regular trains, taking about 20 minutes, from London King's Cross in the center of London. Everyone is welcome to attend this lecture. There is no charge. Contact Geoff Hodgson g.m.hodgson@herts.ac.uk for more information.

Thomas Robert Malthus (1766-1834) was the first ever Professor of Political Economy in Britain. He taught and researched at the East India College, near Hertford in Hertfordshire.

 

May 12, 2005. "Can International Treaties Promote Disarmament and Development?" A seminar promoting transferring funds from military uses to development uses will be presented by the Alliance for the Global Wellness Fund Treaty, at the UN (room to be announced), from 1:15pm to 2:45pm. More information on the event and the treaty at http://www.globalwellnesstreaty.org.

 

May 20, 2005. The Study Group on the Economics of Security in the Post-9/11 World at 66 W 12th Street, Room 510, New York, NY at 2:00pm. Loretta Napoleoni, an Italian ecnomist and the author of the forthcoming, "Terror, Incorporated: Tracing the Dollars Behind the Terror Network," will be the presenter. Please RSVP to Frida Berrigan at BerrigaF@newschool.edu

 

June 9 - 14, 2005. Women In International Security 2005 Summer Symposium for Graduate Students in International Affairs, Washington, DC, US. http://www.idealist.org/en/events/74966:78/87995:116.

 

June 13-17, 2005. Northern Ireland. The Initiative on Conflict Resolution and Ethnicity summer school is offering five courses:

  • the management of peace processes
  • track two diplomacy and integrated peacebuilding
  • evaluation and impact assessment of peacebuilding programmes
  • gender, conflict and education
  • EU policies and activities in peacebuilding, crisis management and resolution.

http://www.incore.ulst.ac.uk/courses/ss/ss05.html

 

June 27 - July 1, 2005. Week I of the Peacebuilding and Development Summer Institute 2005 at American University, Washington, DC. The Peacebuilding and Development Institute provides knowledge, practical experience and skills for scholars and practitioners involved in conflict resolution, peacebuilding, humanitarian assistance and development. http://www.american.edu/sis/peace/summer/.

 

July 5 - July 9, 2005. Week II of the Peacebuilding and Development Summer Institute 2005 at American University, Washington, DC. The Peacebuilding and Development Institute provides knowledge, practical experience and skills for scholars and practitioners involved in conflict resolution, peacebuilding, humanitarian assistance and development. http://www.american.edu/sis/peace/summer/.

 

July 11 - July 15, 2005. Week III of the Peacebuilding and Development Summer Institute 2005 at American University, Washington, DC. The Peacebuilding and Development Institute provides knowledge, practical experience and skills for scholars and practitioners involved in conflict resolution, peacebuilding, humanitarian assistance and development. http://www.american.edu/sis/peace/summer/.

 

November 10 - 12, 2005. European Association for Evolutionary Political Economy (EAEPE) presents its annual conference in Bremen, Germany. The theme of the conference is A New Deal for the New Economy? Global and Local Developments, and New Institutional Arrangements. Papers are still being accepted. For further information please visit the EAEPE website (http://www.eaepe.org/) or http://www.iiso.uni-bremen.de/elsner or contact the local organizers: Wolfram Elsner at welsner@uni-bremen.de and Rebecca Schmitt at rschmitt@uni-bremen.de

 

November 11 - 12, 2005. International Conference on Conflict and Sustainable Peace in East and Southeast Asia, University of Western Sydney, Australia. For details, contact Professor Manas Chatterji by phone (607) 777-2475 or e-mail mchatter@binghamton.edu.

 

December 28 - 30, 2005. Second International Conference on Conflict and Peace in South Asia, Jaipur, India. For details, contact Professor Manas Chatterji by phone (607) 777-2475 or e-mail mchatter@binghamton.edu.

 

January 12 - 14, 2006. Second International Meeting on Disaster Management, Colombo, Sri Lanka. For details, contact Professor Manas Chatterji by phone (607) 777-2475 or e-mail mchatter@binghamton.edu.
 
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How Can I Help?

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Please consider becoming a member of EPS. Your annual membership entitles you to discounts on publications, invitations to events, our informative newsletters, and more. Most importantly, by joining us you help to ensure that reasoned perspectives on essential economic issues will continue to be heard. Membership dues and other donations are fully tax-deductible. Visit http://www.epsusa.org/membership/membership.htm for more information.

 

If you have enjoyed this issue of EPS NewsNotes, or if you wish to support our mission, please consider making a donation to EPS. You can do so securely online through our website or by sending a check to:

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at the Levy Economics Institute
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